Selected Research & Analysis: Demographic Characteristics > Aged

See also related Statistics & Data Files and Extramural Projects.

Related Fact Sheets

The Oldest Old in 2050
Population Projection (released August 2021)
Improving the Measurement of Retirement Income of the Aged Population
ORES Working Paper No. 116 (released January 2021)
by Irena Dushi and Brad Trenkamp

Research has shown that survey-reported pension and retirement income measures may suffer from reporting errors, which lead to biased estimates of income and poverty of the aged population. In this paper, the authors evaluate income estimates from the Census Bureau's 2016 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC). The authors compare 2016 CPS ASEC public-use data with public-use survey data from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study and with CPS ASEC data that have been merged with administrative data from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the Social Security Administration. They find that for the population aged 65 or older, supplementing the CPS ASEC with IRS and Social Security administrative data results in a higher estimate of pension income's share of aggregate income, less estimated reliance on Social Security, and a lower estimated rate of poverty. They also find that the HRS provides better estimates of the income of the aged population than the public-use CPS data.

Employment at Older Ages and Social Security Benefit Claiming, 1980–2018
Research and Statistics Note No. 2020-01 (released April 2020)
by Patrick J. Purcell

A retired worker's Social Security benefit depends in part on the age at which he or she claims benefits. Working longer and claiming benefits later increase the monthly benefit. Information about trends in employment at older ages and the age at which individuals claim Social Security benefits can help policymakers assess the effectiveness of current policies in influencing the timing of retirement and benefit claims. Both the labor force participation rate (LFPR) among older Americans and the age at which they claim Social Security retirement benefits have risen in recent years. For example, from 2000 through 2018, the LFPR among individuals aged 65–69 rose from 30 percent to 38 percent for men and from 19 percent to 29 percent for women. Since 2000, the proportion of fully insured men and women who claim retirement benefits at the earliest eligibility age of 62 has declined substantially.

Retirement and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Aged Veterans: Differences by Education and Race/Ethnicity
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 79, No. 1 (released February 2019)
by Christopher R. Tamborini, Patrick J. Purcell, and Anya Olsen

This article's authors use data from the 1995 and 2015 Current Population Surveys to provide multi-layered descriptive statistics on the retirement and socioeconomic characteristics of veterans aged 55 or older. The authors explore indicators of family structure, work, income from Social Security and other sources, and economic security. They also investigate differences in educational attainment and race/ethnicity within and across veteran and nonveteran samples over the two-decade span. Further, they account for age and cohort effects by separately analyzing three age groups: 55–61, 62–69, and 70 or older. The authors find important within-group differences among aged veterans across education and racial/ethnic groups and over time, and discuss the implications of their findings.

Poverty Among the Aged Population: The Role of Out-of-Pocket Medical Expenditures and Annuitized Assets in Supplemental Poverty Measure Estimates
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 78, No. 1 (released February 2018)
by Koji Chavez, Christopher Wimer, David M. Betson, and Lucas Manfield

The Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) does not account for the aged population's ability to draw from asset principal to cover living expenses. In this article, the authors ask two questions: (1) How much can we conservatively expect the aged to withdraw from their assets annually, and (2) To what extent would the inclusion of such assets alter the estimated proportion of the aged in SPM poverty—specifically, the proportion of the aged who are “pushed” into SPM poverty because of their medical out-of-pocket expenditures?

The Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Income of the Aged Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 2 (released May 2017)
by Irena Dushi, Howard M. Iams, and Brad Trenkamp

Social Security benefits are the most important source of U.S. retirement income. Over time, however, trends in employer-provided pension offerings, societal changes, and Social Security program rule changes have altered the distribution of income by source among the aged population. In this article, the authors examine the reliance on Social Security benefits of people aged 65 or older using data from the Current Population Survey, the Survey of Income and Program Participation, and the Health and Retirement Study.

Poverty Status of Social Security Beneficiaries, by Type of Benefit
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 76, No. 4 (released November 2016)
by Benjamin Bridges and Robert V. Gesumaria

This article examines the 2012 poverty status of eight Social Security adult type of benefit (TOB) groups using both the official poverty measure and the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). For each TOB group, the article compares the SPM estimate with the official poverty measure estimate. In addition, it estimates the effects of various features of the SPM on poverty rates, noting why the SPM estimates differ from official estimates. For each poverty measure, the article also compares poverty estimates across groups.

Married Women's Projected Retirement Benefits: An Update
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 76, No. 2 (released May 2016)
by Howard M. Iams

This note examines how changes in women's labor force participation and lifetime earnings will affect the Social Security benefits of future beneficiary wives. The Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 7) projects that at least four-fifths of wives in the late baby boom (born 1956–1965) and generation X (born 1966–1975) cohorts will receive their initial Social Security benefits based solely on their own earnings. For wives in those cohorts, most of the average benefit amount (91–92 percent) will be attributable to their own earnings histories.

The Effects of Alternative Demographic and Economic Assumptions on MINT Simulations: A Sensitivity Analysis
Research and Statistics Note No. 2014-03 (released April 2014)
by Patrick J. Purcell and Dave Shoffner

The Social Security Administration's (SSA's) Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) estimates income/wealth of future retirees. Estimates are based on demographic information from the Survey of Income and Program Participation: individual earnings histories and projections of interest rates, wage growth, mortality rates, and disability rates. Historically, MINT simulations were based exclusively on SSA's Office of the Chief Actuary's (OCACT's) intermediate-cost projections of key demographic/economic variables. The authors present the results of a sensitivity analysis in which they ran MINT using OCACT's low-cost/high-cost projections of mortality and disability trends. Those simulations estimated characteristics of the population aged 65 or older in 2040 under alternative projections of mortality/disability trends. The authors then describe simulations in which future real rates of return on stocks held in retirement accounts differ from the historical mean real rate of return used in baseline simulations. Sensitivity analyses can help MINT users choose model parameters with the greatest impact on simulation results.

The Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) and the Aged: How and Why the SPM and Official Poverty Estimates Differ
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73, No. 4 (released November 2013)
by Benjamin Bridges and Robert V. Gesumaria

In November 2011, the Census Bureau released its first report on the Supplemental Poverty Measure. The SPM addresses many criticisms of the official poverty measure and is intended to provide an improved statistical picture of poverty. This article examines the extent of poverty identified by the two measures. First, we look at how the SPM and official estimates differ for various aged and nonaged groups. Then, we look at why the SPM poverty rate for the aged is much higher than the official rate.

The Projected Effects of Social Security Benefit Increase Options for Older Beneficiaries
Policy Brief No. 2013-01 (released October 2013)
by Kevin Whitman and Dave Shoffner

In conjunction with larger Social Security solvency plans, many policymakers have proposed introducing benefit increases for older beneficiaries. This brief analyzes the projected effects of two such policy options on beneficiaries aged 85 or older in 2030 using the Modeling Income in the Near Term model. Both options target older beneficiaries' primary insurance amounts for a 5 percent increase, but they differ in how the increase would be calculated. Both proposals would increase monthly benefits for nearly all older beneficiaries, and both would reduce poverty levels among the aged, relative to currently scheduled benefits. However, the options differ in how the benefit increases would be distributed among older beneficiaries across shared lifetime earnings quintiles.

The Increasing Labor Force Participation of Older Workers and its Effect on the Income of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72, No. 1 (released February 2012)
by Michael V. Leonesio, Benjamin Bridges, Robert V. Gesumaria, and Linda Del Bene

Higher labor force participation rates for people aged 62–79 are associated with a dramatic increase in the share of their total money income attributable to earnings. For persons aged 65–69, the earnings share increased from 28 percent in 1980 to 42 percent in 2009. Two decades ago, Social Security benefits and earnings were roughly equal shares of total money income (about 30 percent); the earnings share is now more than 12 percentage points larger. The marked increase in the importance of earnings as an income source is also evident throughout the 62–79 age range among Social Security beneficiaries.

This Is Not Your Parents' Retirement: Comparing Retirement Income Across Generations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72, No. 1 (released February 2012)
by Barbara A. Butrica, Karen E. Smith, and Howard M. Iams

This article examines how retirement income at age 67 is likely to change for baby boomers and generation Xers compared with current retirees. The authors use the Modeling Income in the Near Term model to project retirement income, assets, poverty rates, and replacement rates for current and future retirees at age 67. In absolute terms, retirement incomes of future cohorts will increase over time, and poverty rates will fall. However, projected income gains are larger for high than for low socioeconomic groups, leading to increased income inequality among future retirees.

Distributional Effects of Accelerating and Extending the Increase in the Full Retirement Age
Policy Brief No. 2011-01 (released January 2011)
by Glenn R. Springstead

This policy brief compares two options set forth by the Social Security Advisory Board to increase the full retirement age (FRA), the age at which claimants may receive unreduced Social Security old-age benefits. One option would raise the FRA from the current target of 67 years to 68 years; the other would raise the FRA to 70 years. The brief examines the effects of both options on the level of benefits of Social Security beneficiaries aged 62 or older in 2070 using Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) projections, and on Trust Fund solvency using estimates from the Social Security Administration's Office of the Chief Actuary. The brief finds that both options would reduce benefits, improve solvency, and slightly increase the poverty rate. Within each option, effects on benefits are relatively uniform across beneficiary characteristics, although some surviving spouse and disabled beneficiaries would be shielded from benefit reductions.

Retiring in Debt? An Update on the 2007 Near-Retiree Cohort
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70, No. 4 (released November 2010)
by Chris E. Anguelov and Christopher R. Tamborini

This research note uses 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) data to update work reported in an earlier article, "Retiring in Debt? Differences between the 1995 and 2004 Near-Retiree Cohorts." The analysis documents whether there have been changes in the debt holdings of near-retirees in 2007, a point in time reflecting the start of the recent financial and economic crisis, relative to 2004. Results show that near-retirees' debt levels in 2007 were modestly higher than in 2004, overall and across a number of subgroups. The results do not capture the full impact of the financial crisis, which manifested at the end of 2007 and in 2008.

Using Matched Survey and Administrative Data to Estimate Eligibility for the Medicare Part D Low-Income Subsidy Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70, No. 2 (released May 2010)
by Erik Meijer, Lynn A. Karoly, and Pierre-Carl Michaud

This article uses matched survey and administrative data to estimate, as of 2006, the size of the population eligible for the Low-Income Subsidy (LIS), which was designed to provide "extra help" with premiums, deductibles, and copayments for Medicare Part D beneficiaries with low income and limited assets. The authors employ individual-level data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and the Health and Retirement Study to cover the potentially LIS-eligible noninstitutionalized and institutionalized populations of all ages. The survey data are matched to Social Security administrative data to improve on potentially error-ridden survey measures of income components and program participation.

Elderly Poverty and Supplemental Security Income, 2002–2005
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70, No. 2 (released May 2010)
by Joyce Nicholas and Michael Wiseman

This article is an extension of work reported in an earlier article entitled, "Elderly Poverty and Supplemental Security Income" (Social Security Bulletin 69(1): 45–73). Like the original work, the present study looks at the consequences of obtaining estimates of the prevalence of poverty among persons aged 65 or older by using administrative data to adjust incomes reported in the Current Population Survey. The original article looked at incomes in 2002; the present one covers measures of absolute and relative poverty status of the elderly during the 2003–2005 period. Again, we find that inclusion of administrative data presents challenges, but under the methodology we adopt, such adjustments lower estimated official poverty overall and increase estimated poverty rates for elderly SSI recipients by correcting for the misreporting of SSI, OASDI, and earnings receipt by CPS respondents.

Low Levels of Retirement Resources in the Near-Elderly Time Period and Future Participation in Means-Tested Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70, No. 1 (released February 2010)
by Alexander Strand

This article describes the de facto standards of low income and resources reflected in the eligibility standards of the largest means-tested programs that serve the elderly and then applies these standards to a near-elderly cohort. Through juxtaposing retirement resources in the near-elderly time period with program participation in the elderly time period, the author indirectly examines some of the changes between the two time periods that could affect program eligibility, including spend-down of resources and marital dissolution. Retirement resource levels are estimated using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, and subsequent participation in one of the means-tested programs—Supplemental Security Income (SSI)—is examined using matched administrative records.

Elderly Poverty and Supplemental Security Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69, No. 1 (released May 2009)
by Joyce Nicholas and Michael Wiseman

Provided here are the absolute and relative poverty status of 2002 elderly Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients. Official poverty estimates are generated from the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS/ASEC). The poverty study presented here differs from previous studies in that it is based on CPS/ASEC income and weight records conditionally adjusted by matching Social Security administrative data. This effort improves the coverage of SSI receipt and the accuracy of SSI estimates. The adjusted CPS/administrative matched data reveal lower 2002 poverty rates among elderly persons (with and without SSI payments) than those generated from the unadjusted CPS/ASEC data.

Cohort Changes in the Retirement Resources of Older Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 4 (released March 2009)
by Howard M. Iams, John W. R. Phillips, Kristen Robinson, Lionel P. Deang, and Irena Dushi

This article uses different sources of United States data to focus on the retirement resources of women aged 55–64 in 2004, 1994, and 1984. Notable changes have occurred with women's pathways into retirement resulting from increased education and lifetime work experience. There appear marked cohort differences in potential retirement outcomes.

Cohort Differences in Wealth and Pension Participation of Near-Retirees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 3 (released December 2008)
by Irena Dushi and Howard M. Iams

This article examines pension participation and nonpension net worth of two cohorts of near retirees. Particularly, the authors look at people born in 1933 through 1939 who were ages 55–61 in 1994, and the more recent cohort consisting of people of the same age in 2004 who were born in 1943 through 1949. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal, nationally representative survey of older Americans.

The Canadian Safety Net for the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 2 (released October 2008)
by Michael Wiseman and Martynas A. Yčas

Canada's Public Pensions System is widely applauded for reducing poverty among the elderly. This article reviews benefits provided to Canada's older people and compares the Canadian system to the U.S. Supplemental Security Income program. Although Canada's system would probably be judged prohibitively expensive for the United States, the authors argue that there are nevertheless lessons to be learned from the Canadian experience.

Benefit Adequacy Among Elderly Social Security Retired-Worker Beneficiaries and the SSI Federal Benefit Rate
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 3 (released April 2008)
by Kalman Rupp, Alexander Strand, Paul S. Davies, and James Sears

The federal benefit rate (FBR) of the Supplemental Security Income program provides an inflation-indexed income guarantee for aged and disabled people with low assets. Some consider the FBR as an attractive measure of Social Security benefit adequacy. Others propose the FBR as an administratively simple, well-targeted minimum Social Security benefit. However, these claims have not been empirically tested. Using microdata from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this article finds that the FBR is an imprecise measure of benefit adequacy; it incorrectly identifies as economically vulnerable many who are not poor, and disregards some who are poor. The reason for this is that the FBR-level benefit threshold of adequacy considers the Social Security benefit in isolation and ignores the family consumption unit. The FBR would provide an administratively simple but poorly targeted foundation for a minimum Social Security benefit. The empirical estimates quantify the substantial tradeoffs between administrative simplicity and target effectiveness.

The Impact of the Unit of Observation on the Measurement of the Relative Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 2 (released February 2008)
by T. Lynn Fisher

Other publications using the same data source as Income of the Population 55 or Older, 2004 have produced different statistics for income and the relative importance of Social Security that appear contradictory. Depending on the unit of observation and whose income is considered, the estimates of the percentage of the elderly receiving all of their income from Social Security in 2004 varies from 13 percent to 22 percent. This article explains how the choice of the unit of observation impacts measures of the relative importance of Social Security benefits for the elderly.

Measuring the Relative Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 2 (released February 2008)
by T. Lynn Fisher

Provided is a discussion of the cumulative effects of the measurement alternatives described in the three previous articles: considering family income of persons rather than aged units, using administrative data in place of survey reported data, and switching the data source from CPS to SIPP. The current-methodology CPS statistic of 17.9 percent of beneficiary aged units receiving all of their income from Social Security in 1996 falls to a substantially smaller estimated 4.5 percent of elderly beneficiary persons based on family income when using the SIPP and Social Security administrative data.

The Never-Married in Old Age: Projections and Concerns for the Near Future
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 2 (released February 2008)
by Christopher R. Tamborini

This article focuses on a growing yet understudied subgroup of the elderly in the United States—the never-married. The first section, based on data from the Current Population Survey and a review of the academic literature, examines the current circumstances of never-married retirees, particularly their economic and health well-being. The succeeding section uses the Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) model to assess the projected (1) changes in the marital status composition of the future retirement-age population; (2) demographics of future never-married retirees, and (3) economic well-being of never-married retirees. The results highlight important links between marital trends, Social Security, and retirement outcomes and offer insight into some of the characteristics of current and future never-married retirees.

The Impact of Survey Choice on Measuring the Relative Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 2 (released February 2008)
by T. Lynn Fisher

This article provides insight into how measures of elderly economic well-being are sensitive to the survey data source. In Social Security Administration's publication Income of the Population 55 or Older, data are based on the national Current Population Survey (CPS). The preciseness of the survey statistics depends upon the willingness and ability of CPS respondents to answer questions accurately. This article contrasts income statistics calculated using the CPS and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Administrative data for Social Security benefits and SSI are also used to evaluate the accuracy of the income estimates.

Estimates of Unreported Asset Income in the Survey of Consumer Finances and the Relative Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 2 (released February 2008)
by T. Lynn Fisher

Through the 1990s and the early 2000s, the Income of the Population 55 or Older has reported a decline in the proportion of the elderly receiving asset income and the corresponding rise in the proportion receiving all of their income from Social Security. This analysis uses the Survey of Consumer Finances from 1992 to 2001 to examine financial asset holdings of the elderly and to determine if those who do not report asset income in fact might hold assets that are likely to generate income. Imputing asset income from likely income-producing holdings, the article examines the impact of probable missing asset income information upon measures of elderly income.

Income Growth and Future Poverty Rates of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64, No. 3 (released January 2003)
by Seyda G. Wentworth and David Pattison

This article estimates effects of future growth in income on the poverty rates of the elderly. If real earnings and other income were to increase steadily at 1 percent per year, poverty among the elderly, 10.5 percent in 1997, would decrease to about 7.2 percent in 2020 and to 4.1 percent in 2047, assuming no Social Security benefit reductions to maintain solvency. The article discusses several other aspects that might affect future poverty rates, including changes in other income components like Supplemental Security Income, earnings, and pensions; changes in longevity and marital patterns; and changes in the distribution of earnings.

Modeling SSI Financial Eligibility and Simulating the Effect of Policy Options
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64, No. 2 (released September 2002)
by Paul S. Davies, Minh Huynh, Chad Newcomb, Paul O'Leary, Kalman Rupp, and James Sears

This article presents the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Financial Eligibility Model developed in the Division of Policy Evaluation of the Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics. Focusing on the elderly, the article simulates five potential changes to the SSI eligibility criteria and presents the effects of those simulations on SSI participation, federal benefits, and poverty among the elderly. Finally, the article discusses future directions for research and potential improvements to the model.

Reducing Poverty Among Elderly Women
ORES Working Paper No. 87 (released January 2001)
by Michael A. Anzick and David A. Weaver

Although the Social Security program has substantially reduced poverty among older Americans, 17.3 percent of nonmarried elderly women (widowed, divorced, or never married) are living in poverty today. This paper explores several policy options designed to reduce poverty by enhancing Social Security widow(er)'s benefits, Supplemental Security Income benefits, and Social Security's special minimum benefit. Depending on the option, 40 percent to 58 percent of the additional federal spending would be directed to the poor or near poor.

Early Retirees Under Social Security: Health Status and Economic Resources
ORES Working Paper No. 86 (released August 2000)
by Michael V. Leonesio, Denton R. Vaughan, and Bernard Wixon

Some proposals to change the Social Security program to ensure long-run solvency would reduce or eliminate benefits to some early retirees. To what extent might those benefit reductions cause hardship for individuals with precarious financial circumstances and whose health appears to limit their ability to offset reductions in Social Security income through increased earnings? Our research is intended to identify the size and characteristics of the population that might be at risk as a consequence of such changes.

The central finding is that over 20 percent of early Social Security retirees have health problems that substantially impair their ability to work. In fact, among those aged 62–64 who are severely impaired, there are as many Old-Age and Survivors Insurance beneficiaries as there are beneficiaries under SSA's two disability programs. The retirement program functions as a substantial, albeit unofficial, disability program for this age group. Moreover, the majority of the most severely impaired early retirees would not qualify for Disability Insurance benefits.

Family Unit Incomes of the Elderly and Children, 1994
ORES Working Paper No. 70 (released November 1996)
by Daniel B. Radner

The economic status of the elderly and the economic status of children are analyzed using a comprehensive definition of income that takes selected types of noncash income and taxes into account. Estimates are presented for detailed age groups over the entire age range and for socioeconomic classifications within the elderly subgroup and within the subgroup of children. The paper finds that children and the elderly are less well off than the middle age groups. This result is obtained using median incomes and the percentage of the group that has low income, as defined here. When results obtained with the measures presented in this paper are compared with results obtained with more commonly used measures, there are important differences for both the elderly and for children. For both groups, the composition of the low-income population differs in important ways from the composition of the official poverty population.

Incomes of the Elderly and Nonelderly, 1967–92
ORES Working Paper No. 68 (released October 1995)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper examines the money incomes of the elderly and the nonelderly. The economic status of the elderly is put in perspective by discussing changes in real incomes since 1967 and the income of the elderly relative to the incomes of other age groups. Detailed age groups within both the elderly and nonelderly groups are examined. The paper finds that the economic status of the elderly in 1992 was substantially better than in 1967 but was about the same as in 1984. The real median income of the elderly rose from 1967 to 1989 but fell from 1989 to 1992. The ratio of the income of the elderly to that of the nonelderly was higher in 1992 than in 1967, but the 1992 ratio was below the 1984 ratio. Large increases in mean Social Security benefits were important in the increase in the total income of the elderly since 1967.

Noncash Income, Equivalence Scales, and the Measurement of Economic Well-Being
ORES Working Paper No. 63 (released October 1994)
by Daniel B. Radner

The economic well-being of subgroups of the population usually is measured by comparing resources and needs. The measure of resources often includes noncash income. Equivalence scales are used to adjust for differential needs. Little attention, however, has been paid to the desirability of consistency between the specifications of the resources and the equivalence scales in these comparisons. This exploratory paper suggests that a lack of consistency between the definitions used on the income and the needs sides can be important for the assessment of the economic well-being of subgroups when some types of noncash income are included in the definition of income. The measured economic status of the aged in the United States when Medicare noncash income is included in the definition of income is used as an example of this consistency problem. Some previous estimates have used equivalence scales that probably understated the relative needs of the aged by omitting needs associated with Medicare. The measured economic well-being of the aged relative to that of other age groups could be overestimated substantially as a result of this consistency problem. The basic problem is not confined to the treatment of Medicare or to the United States, but is much broader in nature.

The Hazard of Mortality Among Aging Retired- and Disabled-Worker Men: A Comparative Sociodemographic and Health Status Analysis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57, No. 3 (released July 1994)
by John L. McCoy, Howard M. Iams, and Timothy Armstrong
The Economic Well-Being of the Old Old: Family Unit Income and Household Wealth
ORES Working Paper No. 58 (released February 1993)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper examines the family income and the household wealth and income of old old persons. Subgroups of the old old are compared, and the old old are compared with the young old. When the old old group is separated into three subgroups—widows living alone, other females, and males—the economic status of widows living alone is substantially below that of the other two subgroups. This difference is found when income, wealth, and combined income-wealth measures are used. When the old old group is compared with the young old group, the economic status of the old old is substantially lower for all measures examined. When the three subgroups within both the old old and young old groups are compared, the economic status of each subgroup is lower for the old old for most measures. Income data from the March 1991 Current Population Survey and wealth and income data from the 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation are used.

The Role of Pensions in Retirement Income: Trends and Questions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56, No. 1 (released January 1993)
by Virginia P. Reno
Economic Well-Being of the Old Old: Family Unit Income and Household Wealth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56, No. 1 (released January 1993)
by Daniel B. Radner
The Economic Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55, No. 3 (released July 1992)
by Daniel B. Radner
An Assessment of the Economic Status of the Aged
ORES Working Paper No. 55 (released April 1992)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper discusses what is known about the economic status of the aged. Numerous complexities involved in the assessment of the economic status of the aged are discussed. Compared with most other recent assessments, this study shows a less favorable status for the aged relative to other age groups. The focus is on an examination of detailed age groups, rather than summary aged and nonaged groups, thus providing a more complete picture of age differences. More than most other assessments, this study stresses uncertainty about the relative status of the aged and emphasizes what we do not know. The need for better adjustments for differences in needs among age and other subgroups of the population is stressed. The need for consistency between the definition of resources and the specification of needs is also emphasized. The vulnerability of the aged to economic risks is discussed.

Income, Assets, and Health Insurance: Economic Resources for Meeting Acute Health Care Needs of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55, No. 1 (released January 1992)
by Linda Del Bene and Denton R. Vaughan
Changes in the Incomes of Age Groups, 1984–1989
ORES Working Paper No. 51 (released September 1991)
by Daniel B. Radner

In recent years there has been great interest in the economic status of the aged, especially in connection with the debates about the appropriate level of Social Security benefits and Medicare coverage and financing. The economic status of the aged relative to other age groups has been of particular interest in these debates. This paper examines changes in the before-tax cash income of the aged and of other age groups from 1984 to 1989. Earlier research found that the real income of the aged rose substantially, both absolutely and relative to the income of the nonaged, from about 1970 to the mid-1980s. It is shown here that from 1984 to 1989 the real income of the aged rose slowly, and fell slightly relative to the income of the nonaged. The different rates of income growth for different aged groups are explored in this paper, with the emphasis on differences between the aged and nonaged. This paper also serves as an update of an earlier paper that contained estimates for the 1967–1984 period. The estimates in this paper generally are consistent with those presented in the earlier article.

Aged SSI Recipients: Income, Work History, and Social Security Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 8 (released August 1991)
by Charles G. Scott
Retirement-Age Couples by Type of Wife's Social Security Benefit
ORES Working Paper No. 43 (released June 1990)
by Christine Irick

This study examines the work history and economic circumstances of wives soon after receiving Social Security retirement benefits. Findings are based on a nationally representative sample of married women, aged 62 or over, who received their first benefit either as retired workers or as spouses of retired workers between mid-1980 and mid-1981.

Alternative Estimates of Economic Well-Being by Age Using Data on Wealth and Income
ORES Working Paper No. 42 (released March 1990)
by Daniel B. Radner

Most analyses of economic status use only income as the measure of resources. It is clear, however, that wealth also plays an important role in economic well-being. The existence of both income and asset tests for eligibility purposes in several government transfer programs (e.g., Supplemental Security Income, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, food stamps) suggests the importance of both wealth and income. Units of the same age, income, and needs are not equally well off if they have different amounts of wealth. A fully satisfactory way of taking differences in wealth into account in a combined income-wealth measure is not available. Particularly controversial is the comparison of different age groups when such measures are used. This exploratory paper examines the use of income-wealth measures for the analysis of the distribution of economic well-being for age groups in the current period.

Assessing the Economic Status of the Aged and Nonaged Using Alternative Income-Wealth Measures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53, No. 3 (released March 1990)
by Daniel B. Radner
Income and Assets of Social Security Beneficiaries by Type of Benefit
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52, No. 1 (released January 1989)
by Susan Grad
Commentary: Economic Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 12 (released December 1988)
by Ida C. Merriam
Postwar Changes in the Income Position of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 12 (released December 1988)
by Jacob Fisher
Income of the Aged in 1962: First Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 3 (released March 1988)
by Lenore A. Epstein
The Wealth of the Aged and Nonaged, 1984
ORES Working Paper No. 36 (released January 1988)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper discusses and illustrates the use of wealth data for the analysis of the economic status of households. Selected estimates of wealth for 1984 from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) are used as illustrations. The particular focus is on the wealth of age groups, with a special interest in the aged. Comparisons of the amounts and composition of wealth of the aged and nonaged (and of more detailed age groups) are presented. The emphasis is on the economic resources available to households other than the very wealthy. The degree of concentration of wealth, the subject that wealth data traditionally have been used to examine, is not discussed. Thus, this paper reflects a somewhat different perspective on the use of wealth data.

Shifts in the Aged-Nonaged Income Relationship, 1979–85
ORES Working Paper No. 35 (released January 1988)
by Daniel B. Radner

In recent years there has been a substantial amount of discussion about the economic status of the aged. There is a widely accepted view that the status of the aged has improved relative to the nonaged. This view has affected the debate on modifications to the Social Security system and other retirement plans. This paper discusses changes in the economic status of the aged during the past several years, in terms of the real income of the aged and in terms of the income of the aged relative to the income of the nonaged. The analysis uses detailed age groups within both the aged and nonaged groups. This detail is important because summary age groups are not homogeneous. Income change at different income levels within each age group is also examined. Income is adjusted for size of family unit and, in some cases, age of head.

Money Incomes of Aged and Nonaged Family Units, 1967–84
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 8 (released August 1987)
by Daniel B. Radner
Income of Retirement-Aged Persons in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 7 (released July 1987)
by Martynas A. Yčas and Susan Grad
Life Expectancy and Health Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49, No. 10 (released October 1986)
by Steven H. Chapman, Mitchell P. LaPlante, and Gail Wilensky
Employment of Retired-Worker Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49, No. 3 (released March 1986)
by Howard M. Iams
Assets of New Retired-Worker Beneficiaries: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48, No. 7 (released July 1985)
by Sally R. Sherman
Incomes of the Aged and Nonaged, 1950–82
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 6 (released June 1984)
by Susan Grad
Family Income, Age, and Size of Unit: Selected International Comparisons
ORES Working Paper No. 32 (released February 1984)
by Daniel B. Radner

This exploratory paper examines the role of age in the distribution of family income in several countries. Unlike most papers that compare the distribution of income across countries, the primary concern in this paper is not with comparisons of the overall degree of inequality. Instead we are more interested in two aspects of the cross-section relationship between age and income. First, we are interested in the relative economic well-being of income recipient units in different age (of head) groups in several developed countries. In the U.S. in recent years, in connection with modifications to the social security system, there has been considerable discussion of the "fair" level of income of the aged population. That discussion has led us to a particular interest in the relative economic well-being of the aged population in other developed countries. Where the data allow, the aged (age 65 and over) group is split into 65–69 and 70 and over age groups as at least partial recognition that economic well-being can differ markedly among subgroups of the aged population. (Other important characteristics such as labor force participation, sex, and the receipt of government retirement income could not be examined.) This paper attempts an initial look at the very complex subject of the relative economic well-being of different age groups in several countries.

Female Social Security Beneficiaries Aged 62 or Older, 1960–82
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 9 (released September 1983)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Relative Importance of Various Income Sources of the Aged, 1980
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 1 (released January 1983)
by Melinda M. Upp
Low-Income Aged: Eligibility and Participation in SSI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45, No. 5 (released May 1982)
by Linda Drazga Maxfield, Melinda M. Upp, and Virginia P. Reno
A Look at the Economic Status of the Aged Then and Now
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45, No. 3 (released March 1982)
by Melinda M. Upp
The Income and Resources of the Elderly in 1978
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44, No. 12 (released December 1981)
by Robert E. Marsh
Income and Living Arrangements Among Poor Aged Singles
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44, No. 4 (released April 1981)
by Thomas Tissue and John L. McCoy
Aged Widows and OASDI: Age At and Economic Status Before and After Receipt of Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44, No. 3 (released March 1981)
by Gayle Thompson Rogers
Assets of the Elderly as They Retire
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44, No. 1 (released January 1981)
by Joseph Friedman and Jane Sjogren
Price and Income Changes for the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44, No. 1 (released January 1981)
by Benjamin Bridges and Michael D. Packard
Labor-Force Participation of Older Married Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 8 (released August 1980)
by John C. Henretta and Angela M. O'Rand
A General Model of Labor-Market Behavior of Older Persons
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 4 (released April 1980)
by Marjorie Honig and Giora Hanoch
Low-Income Widows and Other Aged Singles
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42, No. 12 (released December 1979)
by Thomas Tissue
Income of the Population Aged 55 and Older, 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42, No. 7 (released July 1979)
by Susan Grad and Karen Foster
Antecedents of Mortality Among the Old-Age Assistance Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42, No. 7 (released July 1979)
by John L. McCoy
Comparison of Aged OASDI and SSI Recipients, 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42, No. 1 (released January 1979)
by Sally R. Sherman
Changes in Food Expenditures, 1969–73: Findings From the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41, No. 7 (released July 1978)
by Janet H. Murray
National Survey of the Black Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41, No. 7 (released July 1978)
by Ethel Shanas and Gloria Heinemann
Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Elderly: Some Black-White Differences
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 7 (released July 1977)
by Julian Abbott
Aged Women OASDI Beneficiaries: Income and Characteristics, 1971
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 4 (released April 1977)
by Gayle B. Thompson
Economically Dependent Persons Without Pension Coverage in Old Age
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38, No. 10 (released October 1975)
by Susan Grad
Work Experience and Income of the Population Aged 60 and Older, 1971
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 11 (released November 1974)
by Gayle B. Thompson
Expenditure Patterns of Welfare, Aged, and Disabled Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 8 (released August 1974)
by Teh-wei Hu, Norman L. Knaub, and Sharif Ghalib
Relative Importance of Income Sources of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 8 (released August 1973)
by Susan Grad
Supplemental Security Income: The Aged Eligible
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 7 (released July 1973)
by Thomas G. Staples
Benefit Levels of Newly Retired Workers: Findings from the Survey of New Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34, No. 7 (released July 1971)
by Virginia P. Reno and Carol Zuckert
Retirement Benefits for Very Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34, No. 4 (released April 1971)
by Max Horlick
Benefit Levels and Socio-economic Characteristics: Findings from the 1968 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 8 (released August 1970)
by Patience Lauriat
Aged OASDHI Beneficiaries: Interstate Migration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 5 (released May 1970)
by William J. Nelson, Jr.
Income of People Aged 65 and Older: Overview From 1968 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 4 (released April 1970)
by Lenore E. Bixby
Living in Retirement: A Moderate Standard for an Elderly City Couple
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31, No. 10 (released October 1968)
by Mollie Orshansky
Personal Health Care Expenditures of the Aged and Nonaged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31, No. 8 (released August 1968)
by Dorothy P. Rice, Arne Anderson, and Barbara S. Cooper
Characteristics of 'New' Old-Age Assistance Recipients, 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31, No. 7 (released July 1968)
by Philip Frohlich
Immediate Effects of Benefit Increases in 1967 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31, No. 7 (released July 1968)
Aged Persons Receiving Both OASDI and OAA, Early 1967
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31, No. 4 (released April 1968)
Improving the Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29, No. 12 (released December 1966)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Employment of Older Workers and Size of Employing Units
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 9 (released September 1965)
by Sebastia Svolos
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Earnings of Older Workers and Retired-Workers Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 5 (released May 1965)
by Marie C. Trafton
Potential Income From Assets: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 12 (released December 1964)
by Janet H. Murray
Assets of the Aged in 1962: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 11 (released November 1964)
by Leon D. Platky
Aged Persons Receiving Both OASDI and PA, Early 1963
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 10 (released October 1964)
by David B. Eppley
Retirement Patterns Among Aged Men: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 8 (released August 1964)
by Erdman Palmore
Medical Care Costs for the Aged: First Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 7 (released July 1964)
by Elizabeth A. Langford
Work Experience and Earnings of the Aged in 1962: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 6 (released June 1964)
by Erdman Palmore
Income of the Aged in 1962: First Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 3 (released March 1964)
by Lenore A. Epstein
The Aged Negro and His Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 2 (released February 1964)
by Mollie Orshansky
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Beneficiaries Newly Approved for Old-Age Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 12 (released December 1963)
by David H. Clark
Living Arrangements and Income of the Aged, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 9 (released September 1963)
by Lenore A. Epstein
State Variations in Income of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 1 (released January 1963)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, Early 1961
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25, No. 4 (released April 1962)
Sources and Size of Money Income of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25, No. 1 (released January 1962)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Old-Age Benefits In Current-Payment Status, By State, December 31, 1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 9 (released September 1961)
by Hammett Buchanan
The Aged in The Population in 1960 and Their Income Sources
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 7 (released July 1961)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income of Aged Persons, Mid-1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 1 (released January 1961)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Budget for an Elderly Couple: Interim Revision by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 12 (released December 1960)
by Mollie Orshansky
Money Income Sources of Aged Persons, December 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 7 (released July 1960)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Selected Sources of Money Income for Aged Persons, June 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22, No. 12 (released December 1959)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income of Aged Persons: A 10-Year Review, 1948 to 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22, No. 6 (released June 1959)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Selected Sources of Money Income for Aged Persons, June 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21, No. 12 (released December 1958)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Income of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries: Highlights from Preliminary Data, 1957 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21, No. 8 (released August 1958)
Selected Sources of Money Income for Aged Persons
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 12 (released December 1957)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Old-Age Assistance: Children's Contributions to Aged Parents
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 6 (released June 1957)
by Saul Kaplan
Money Income Sources of the Aged, December 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 6 (released June 1957)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Recipients of Old-Age Assistance: Personal and Social Characteristics
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 4 (released April 1957)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Money Income Sources for Persons Aged 65 and Over, June 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 12 (released December 1956)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Aged Beneficiaries of OASI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 12 (released December 1956)
Old-Age Insurance Benefits, 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 10 (released October 1956)
The Federal-State Conference on Aging
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 8 (released August 1956)
by Dorothy McCamman
Money Income Sources for Persons Aged 65 and Over, December 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 6 (released June 1956)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Assets Held by Aged Beneficiaries of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance at End of 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 5 (released May 1956)
by Vivian B. Norman
Money Income Position of the Aged, 1948 to 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 4 (released April 1956)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Recipients of Old-Age Assistance: Income and Resources
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 4 (released April 1956)
by Charles E. Hawkins
Money Income Sources for Persons Aged 65 and Over, June 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 12 (released December 1955)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Economic Resources of Persons Aged 65 and Over
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 6 (released June 1955)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Part-Time Employment of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 3 (released March 1955)
by Warren J. Baker
Economic Status of Aged Persons, June 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 12 (released December 1954)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Size of Income and Personal Characteristics of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 10 (released October 1954)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, December 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 6 (released June 1954)
Economic Situation of Aged Insurance Beneficiaries: An Evaluation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 4 (released April 1954)
by Edna C. Wentworth
Postwar Changes in the Income Position of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 2 (released February 1954)
by Jacob Fisher
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, June 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16, No. 12 (released December 1953)
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries: Assets and Liabilities at End of 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16, No. 8 (released August 1953)
by Margaret L. Stecker
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, December 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16, No. 6 (released June 1953)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, June 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 12 (released December 1952)
Resources of Aged Insurance Beneficiaries: 1951 National Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 8 (released August 1952)
by Edna C. Wentworth
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, December 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 6 (released June 1952)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, June 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 12 (released December 1951)
Children's Contributions to Old-Age Assistance Recipients in North Dakota and South Dakota
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 8 (released August 1951)
by Saul Kaplan
Income of Aged Persons, 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 7 (released July 1951)
by Jacob Fisher
Economic Status of Aged Persons and of Dependent Survivors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 6 (released June 1951)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and of Dependent Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 12 (released December 1950)
The Conference on Aging
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 10 (released October 1950)
by Clark Tibbitts
Economic Status of the Aged and Dependent Survivors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 6 (released June 1950)
Income of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries, 1941 and 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 5 (released May 1950)
by Edna C. Wentworth
Budget for an Elderly Couple
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 7 (released July 1949)
Aged Beneficiaries of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and the Aged Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 1 (released January 1949)
Nonrelief Income of Retired Insurance Beneficiaries in Boston
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 9 (released September 1948)
A Budget for an Elderly Couple
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 2 (released February 1948)
Budgeting To Meet Total Needs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 2 (released February 1948)
by Evalyn G. Weller
Net Worth of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 10 (released October 1947)
by Erna Magnus
Changes in the Resources of Beneficiary Groups in St. Louis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 8 (released August 1947)
by Lelia M. Easson
Aged Beneficiaries, Assistance Recipients, and the Aged in the General Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 6 (released June 1946)
by Jacob Fisher
The Needs of the Aged in Relation to Need Among Other Groups
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 8 (released August 1941)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Economic Status of the Aged in Urban Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 10 (released October 1940)
by Barkev S. Sanders
Economic Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1–3 (released March 1938)
by Marjorie Shearon